How Powerful is Feedforward in University Education? A Case Study in Romanian Geography Education on Increasing Learning Efficiency

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Maria Eliza Dulamă
Oana Ramona Ilovan


Feedforward, Geography, Quality, Learning self-regulation, Assessment tool, Sketch map


There are different opinions about the meaning of feedforward: some consider it a response to feedback, while others think it consists of suggestions given to a person in order to help them before learning or starting a task. This study analyzed the professor’s and university students’ actions during a seminar activity with a group of 60 students from Babe?-Bolyai University in Cluj-Napoca, Romania and represented them in a flowchart. It also analyzed the efficiency of several didactic techniques and tools that were used with the role of feedforward (e.g., task, checklists). Students’ results in the form of sketch maps were compared with the ones from a control group of another 60 students from the same university; the methods and tools that were used as feedforward were noticed to determine an increase in efficiency and better product quality. The feedforward categories were systemized and described, thus filling a gap in the literature of the field. To increase students’ learning efficiency and the quality of their results, professors should use feedforward more than feedback, because this creates and ensures the necessary conditions for students to correctly solve tasks and to prevent them from making mistakes.


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Abstract 861